Translation- Was it using a Seer Stone or using the Urim and Thummim? Bronze Age swords appeared from around the 17th century BC, in the Black Sea region and the Aegean, as a further development of the dagger.They were replaced by iron swords during the early part of the 1st millennium BC.. From an early time the swords reached lengths in excess of 100 cm. To “bury the hatchet” is an American English idiom meaning “to make peace.” The phrase alludes to the figurative or literal practice of putting away the tomahawk when hostilities ceased during the formation of the Iroquois Confederacy. This curiosity, it is stated, is in the museum at Philadelphia.” North America’s Indian Traditions, Archaeology & Book of Mormon II Ohio’s Ancient City edited by Wayne May Reprinted from The Wonders of the World, Boston, Massachusetts: The John Adams Lee Publishing Company, circa 1850. Two or three broken pieces of a copper tube were also found, filled with iron rust. He was a Miller. Am. This copper ornament was covered with a coat of green rust and is considerably corroded. As you see in the picture to the right, if there were steel swords in Jerusalem, it makes sense that similar swords would be found where Lehi landed. "Typologically, the swords from Nebra and Vreta belong to the Sögel blades, which copy the shape and decoration of Hajdúsámson-Apa swords [...] Concerning the provenance of the swords, the area between the rivers Danube and Tisza in present-day Hungary and Romania has been suggested, as also the production in present Germany [...] Vandkilde (1996:240) proposed that these swords and daggers of the Sögel and Wohlde type in southern Jutland could have been manufactured locally." Carbon Steel in Scotland 490-375 BC. “Here is the description of the sword as displayed in Jerusalem’s Israel Museum, Iron Age Gallery: “This rare and exceptionally long sword, which was discovered on the floor of a building next to the skeleton of a man, dates to the end of the First Temple period. A. Müller-Karpe, 'Anatolische Bronzeschwerter und Südosteuropa' In: C. Dobiat (ed. Welcome to archaeological mystery! However, in this alloy iron is present in a greater quantity. Like the iron furnaces mentioned in my book, the copper furnaces were built by carving out bowls and air ducts in mounds, in creek banks and other natural elevations. As a shortsword, it is swung in a quick stabbing motion pointed in the direction of the mouse cursor, similar to a spear. Iron swords were slightly stronger, making them less likely to break or bend during use. It is six inches in length and two inches in breadth and weighs one ounce; it has no ornaments or figures, but has three longitudinal ridges, which probably correspond with edges or ridges of the sword. We have been told by an eyewitness that a few years ago, near Blacksburgh, in Virginia, eighty miles from Marietta, there was found about half of a steel bow, which, when entire, would measure five or six feet; the other part was corroded or broken. Since very few experts are looking in North America for iron and steel, it is ignored when they do find it. Iron is an element, bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. The Vreta Kloster sword discovered in 1897 (dated 1600 to 1500 BC) has a blade length (the hilt is missing) of 46 cm.[10]. Stockholder in Kirtland Safety Society. Mounds are very frequent in that neighborhood, and many curious articles of antiquity have been found there. In 1813 was found in a mound a piece of copper incrusted with “erugo” [mildew, plant rust], half an inch thick It consists of thin plates of copper rolled up, encircling each other. just a few decades before the final collapse of the palace cultures in the Bronze Age collapse. Military of Mycenaean Greece § Offensive weapons, "Student discovers 5,000-year-old sword hidden in Venetian monastery", https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/antennae%20sword, From Rapier to Langsax: Sword Structure in the British Isles in the Bronze and Iron Ages, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bronze_Age_sword&oldid=984158329, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. There are certain enchanted beads, very thin plates of copper, on which extraordinary figures are engraved, with inexplicable words and unknown characters. Copper. opper ornament was covered with a coat of green rust, well manufactured swords and knives of iron, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Explain the BofM Geography and Church History, here is only "One Narrow Neck of Land”, but a total of 3 Unique Necks in the Book of Mormon, Did Joseph Smith “Know” the geography of the Book of Mormon. The measure, two inches and a quarter across the face of each. It is believed the design is as old as the league itself and that the present belt is not the original.” History of the Iroquois Confederacy. The first curved swords were called scimitars, and were used by the Persian army during the 9th century. It seems to have been made for this single personage, as the remains of one skeleton only were discovered. Around the end where the blade had been inserted, was a ferule of silver; no iron was found, but an oxide remained. He says, that a small piece of copper was found on his farm at the same time. Carbon Steel in Trans Jordan 1250 BC, More about swords and hatchets from Annotated Book of Mormon page 251. The sword is made of iron hardened into steel, attesting to substantial metallurgical know-how. The copper plates are nearly reduced to an oxyde, or rust. Nine feet high, of a circular figure, nearly flat on the top. On the plantation of Colonel William Sheppard, in the county of Orange, on the river Enoe; 6 miles above Hillsborough in North Carolina, and near the remains of a town which had been deserted in very remote times, was picked up, about the year 1803 or 1804, a round piece of copper about the size of an American eagle. Two of these are yet entire; the third one is so much wasted, that it dropped in pieces on removing it from the earth. They were incrusted with “verdigrease” [A green patina or crust of copper sulfate or copper chloride formed on copper, brass, and bronze exposed to air or seawater for long periods of time], but the inside of them was pure copper. The plates were remarkably pure and fine. It bears no device or ornamental work of any kind, being a perfectly plain and heavy piece of workmanship. 2- Did you know there is only "One Narrow Neck of Land”, but a total of 3 Unique Necks in the Book of Mormon? I was a teenage boy at Chillicothe High in Ross County when first I met Arlington H. Mallery in 1949. But the fronts of them are slightly convex, with a depression, like a cup, in the center, and they measure two and a quarter inches across the face of each. Typically cast brass, Citadel forges the habaki to each individual blade from solid copper … The only weaker material that is used with any significant frequency is cast iron (iron with 3-4% carbon, often very brittle), not counting plastic tsuba that you can find on wallhangers. 8- Are there artifacts found near the Hill Cumorah? From its shape it appears to have been used as a plumb, or for an ornament, as near one of the ends is a circular crease or groove, for tying a thread: it is round, two inches and a half in length, one inch in diameter at the centre, and half an inch at each end. This sword is generally more useless than the other early game metal broadswords. Near the side of the body was found a plate of silver, which appears to have been the upper part of a sword-scabbard. Dennis William, The archaeology of Celtic art, 2007, p. 269. B. Athanassov, R. Krauß, V. Slavčev, 'A Bronze Sword of the Aegean-Anatolian Type in the Museum of Varna, Bulgaria' in: Horejs and Pavúk (eds. To make bronze, you need copper and tin. Near the feet was found a piece of copper, weighing three ounces. The date of the gold coin was probably 1214, and the date of the brass piece 1009. From this tree four white roots sprouted, carrying the message of unity and peace to the four directions. Copper is very malleable—it’s easy to shape—but it’s too soft, not stiff enough, and too weak to make a sword blade. However, you can make cast iron weapons from one substance - iron. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing. “…we will hide away our swords, yea, even we will bury them deep in the earth…” (Alma 24:16). Walking private property on Dog Lake, near the north shore of Lake Superior, he chanced upon a big ancient copper tool or weapon, see Fig. 3- Where did Lehi Land? Stone is however very fragile, and therefore not practical to be used as swords. Its interior surface has been gilt, or washed, with a bright, yellow, untarnishable metal, which is undoubtedly gold ; but that gilding is impaired in some places. In terms of performance, iron swords offered a slight improvement over its bronze counterpart. It is in the form of an inverted cone, measuring three and a half inches across at top, two and a half at bottom, and four inches in height. During the autumnal rains, or the melting of the snow in the spring, it runs with the velocity of a current. The sword remained extremely rare for another millennium, and became more widespread only with the closing of the 3rd millennium. Though the iron of the time was not much stronger than copper, iron swords were easier to produce and the material was more readily available. It has a slightly stronger alternate version, the Tin Broadsword.As with all other broadswords, this sword is swung overhead, which makes it easier to defeat flying and jumping monsters than shortswords. If you are looking for the ores mentioned in the Book of Mormon, they do exist, and they have been found in North America. On the back side, opposite the depressed portion, is a copper rivet or nail, around which are two separate plates, by which they were fastened to the leather. were to be buried, or otherwise stored, in time of peace. How the test was conducted, we do not know. So, the first metal artifacts in Ohio came, not from the Europeans themselves, but from other American Indians. 2010: The collapse of the 4th millennium centralised system at Arslantepe and the far-reaching changes in 3rd millennium societies. They resemble the skin of an old mummy. “Readers of the Book of Mormon will remember that in this very region, according to that sacred record, the final battles were fought between the Nephites and Lamanites. An ornament of very pure gold was discovered, a few years since, in Ross county, near Chillicothe, lying in the palm of a skeleton’s hand, in a small mound. So that it must have circulated nearly 300 years, before it could have come hither from them, and by that time would have been worn out. Metal arrowheads were much more durable than arrowheads chipped from stone, but chipped stone points were still used by some early American Indians living in the era of contact with European settlers. Near the feet was found a piece of copper, weighing three ounces. Although both metals are used for industrial purposes, bronze is widely used in machine parts, as it causes less friction than iron. Not long since, a silver cup was taken from a mound at Marietta, on the Ohio. These are the "type A" swords of the Aegean Bronze Age. A few years ago, near Blacksburg in Virginia, 80 miles from Marietta, was found about the half of a steel bow, which when entire would have measured five or six feet. A skeleton appeared to have been burnt in a large and very hot fire, which had almost consumed the bones of the deceased. You will find it very interesting that the advocates of the Mesoamerican theory have been stumped by the talk about “steel swords” in the Book of Mormon. And 20 feet to the north of it, was another. It has no ornaments or figures, but has three longitudinal ridges, which probably corresponded with the edges or ridges of the sword; it seems to have been fastened to the scabbard by three or four rivets, the holes of which remain in the silver. A few miles below Mr. Payne, a gold piece “Was found, on the plantation of Mr. Prehistoric Iron Age people from the Old World built the furnaces to smelt bog iron ore into wrought iron, the metal blacksmiths shaped into tools and weapons. Same really goes for bronze tho they could make the blade longer with it than copper. These swords have been variously dated to periods between 1700-1400 BC, but were probably used more extensively during 1200-600 BC (Painted Grey Ware culture, Iron Age India).[14]. Nearby he found a cache of 11 smaller copper objects. Dr. Alanen sent pictures of the big artifact, asking me what it could have been used for?…, “The earliest date for pounding copper is unknown, but we have two clear carbon dates form the remains of wooden shafts preserved in a pair of socketed copper points, Vilas County Wisconsin, 1998 (Reardon 2004). During its lifetime the basic design was maintained, although the material changed from bronze to iron. That the silver in use among the mound-builders was principally if not wholly obtained there, seems incontestable. Near the feet was a piece of copper weighing three ounces. The objects, which date to between 490 and 375 B.C., may have been tools or weapons”. Other articles have been found there, consisting of pure copper, human bones of different sizes, sometimes enclosed in rude stone coffins, but oftener lying blended with the earth, surrounded by a portion of ashes and charcoal. North of that place are no wells perforated in the rocks. An exception is the Xiphos from Greece, the development of which continued for several more centuries. This circle of stones seems to have been the nucleus over which the mound was formed, as immediately over them is heaped the common earth of the adjacent plain. In an ancient mound of the streets of Marietta, in the margin of the plane near the fortifications, amongst other things, in 1819 were discovered three large circular bosses [A shield boss, or umbo, is a round, convex or conical piece of material at the centre of a shield], or ornaments, for sword belts, or a buckler composed of copper, oval, and with a thick plate of silver. Near its center it contains a bead made of colonial lead glass. Roland Schwab, Inga Ullén, Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich. On the reverse side, opposite one is a copper rivet or nail, around which are two separate plates, by which they were fastened to the leather. At Circleville a copper coin was taken from the central mound, from beneath the roots of a hickory growing on the mound, seven or eight inches in circumference. In the same mound a beautiful piece of marble was taken up in the year 1814. It is obviously too large for common domestic tasks, is longer than some Old World short swords, and could have served as such a weapon.” Ancient American by Wayne May Issue Number 90 The Big Canadian Knife (Sword?) Between the copper and the silver exists a connection, such as, it seems to me, could only be produced by heat ; and if it is admitted that these are genuine remains of the mound-builders, it must, at the same time, be admitted that they possessed the difficult art of plating one metal upon another. Purchase Here, The following three quotes are from the Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, J.W. Most of the scholars claim there have been no steel swords found in Mesoamerica but they speak of something called a a Macana or Macuahuitl, a long, flat piece of hardwood embedded with sharp pieces of obsidian. Out of a mound near t:he circle of the large fort at Circleville, was found the elk- horn handle of a small sword or long knife. [9] Naue II swords could be as long as 85 cm, but most specimens fall into the 60 to 70 cm range. It’s considerably harder, stiff These pieces, from their appearance, composed the lower end of the scabbard, near the point of the sword. Diverse specimens have been discovered in Fatehgarh, where there are several varieties of hilt. Two or three broken pieces of a copper tube were also found, filled with iron rust. This sword was, however, classified as of the Hajdúsámson-Apa type, and was presumably imported. The sword’s sheath was also made of wood, and all that remains of it is its bronze tip. Sword production in China is attested from the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty, from roughly 1200 BC. Whole armies could then be equipped with swords (batmcfluff 2013). Blacksmiths could not use copper for swords, however, which led to the use of bronze, a much harder metal. Served as second counselor in Kirtland elders quorum, 1837. On the main branch of Paint creek in Ohio, near some very ancient works, and on the inside of a wall on the side of an elevated hill 300 feet high, which wall is of stone, around the brow of the hill there appears to have been a row of furnaces or smiths‘ shops, where the cinders now lie many feet in depth. A typical variant for European swords is the leaf shaped blade, which was most common in North-West Europe at the end of the Bronze Age, on the British Isles in particular. “The body of the person here buried was laid upon the surface of the ground, with his face upwards, and his feet pointing to the south-west. There was also a large mirror, three feet in length, one and a half in breadth, and one inch and a half thick. “Daughter’s Mound, on the west side of the Kissimmee River, in Florida, 4 miles northwest of Fort Bassenger… [it was] explored, contained quantities of beads, glass eardrops, a piece of silver, and two steel axes” as reported by, “Erie County New York was reported to have” Circular works, with skeletons, pottery, and iron axes, on two hills in the north part of Aurora: as recorded in French’s Gazetteer of the Stat of New York, 1861 p. 283 as recorded in History of Erie County, p. 121, A “Deposit of Indian axes at Aurora, one of which was made of steel,” was reported by Obed Edson in American Antiquities Vol. The plates of copper are nearly reduced to an oxide, or rust. These compose the lower end of the scabbard, near the point of the sword. These bones are deeply tinged with green, and appear to have been preserved by the salts in the copper. The technology to produce blades of such lengths appears to have been developed in the Aegean, using alloys of copper and tin or arsenic, around 1700 BC. Amulets also, of various kinds, all which are worn by the Hindoos to serve as talismans, and to preserve them from every species of incantation. Museum of National Antiquities (Statens Historiska Museum) inventory number SHM 10419. The marble piece is about five or six inches in length, flat on one side, oval on the other, having an increasing width in the middle, the ends are apparently cut, and with some hard implement used for the purpose. Copper: Copper is naturally present in the earth’s crust as a mineral at a concentration of 50 ppm. Two or three pieces of a copper tube were also found, filled with rust. Many iron and copper swords HAVE been discovered. http://ironageamerica.blogspot.com/2011/11/turner-type-2-furnace.html, Metal Arrowheads “While spear points and knives made of native copper were made and used by pre-contact American Indian groups in the Great Lakes region during the Late Archaic period, iron and brass first came to the peoples of the Ohio country when Europeans arrived in eastern North America with metal kettles and knives to trade. It is also used in construction and industrial machine. It was of “isinglass.” [mica or a similar material in thin transparent sheets]. The letters were of some unknown alphabet. 1 General Info 2 Swords 2.1 Bronze Sword 2.2 Steel Sword 2.3 Mythril Sword 2.4 Silver Sword 2.5 Witch Silver Sword 2.6 Rapier 2.7 Solan's Sword 2.8 Wraith Sword 2.9 Greatsword 2.10 Iron Greatsword 2.11 Abyssal Greatsword 2.12 Scythe 3 Note Swords are weapons with a long metal blade and a hilt with a handguard used for striking opponents or creatures. It was found among ashes, and large pieces of charcoal. However, it is weak and brittle. The natural and aboriginal history of Tennessee: up to the first settlements therein by the white people, in the year 1768 BY JOHN HAYWOOD, OF THE COUNTY OF DAVIDSON, THE STATE OF TENNESSEE. Iron was known to the humans from the beginning of civilization; however, steel was discovered at a later date. The trees upon the mound, as evidenced by the annulars, were between 400 and 500 years of age, and on the ground beside them were other trees, in a state of decay that appeared to have fallen from dotage. The Bronze age gave way to the Iron Age which began around 1,000 BC. It is composed of small pieces of native copper pounded together; and in the cracks between the pieces, are several pieces of silver, one nearly of the size of a fourpenny piece or half a “disme” [ an American silver coin with a face value of five cents.] No part retained its form but a portion of the forehead or scull, which lay under the plate of copper. Powell, Director, Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains by Cyrus Thomas, 1891, “This past summer (2010), Dr.Harold Alanen from Thunder Bay,Canada, experienced a rare and exciting adventure. 5- Did Joseph Smith “Know” the geography of the Book of Mormon? that some nation preceding the savages was formerly here, of far greater advancement in the arts of civilization than they ever possessed. 6- What is the best source to find Scriptural Evidence that the BofM happened in North America? BEING THE RESULTS OF EXTENSIVE ORIGINAL SURVEYS AND EXPLORATIONS, WITH A SUPPLEMENT ANTIQUITIES OF THE WEST; ILLUSTRATED BY FOURTEEN QUARTO PLATES AND EIGHTY ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD : By E. G. SQUIEB, M. A., Page 286-288, https://archive.org/stream/antiquitiesofsta00squirich/antiquitiesofsta00squirich_djvu.txt, USE OF SILVER BY THE AMERICAN ABORIGINES. Near the side of the body was found a plate of silver, which appears to have been the upper part of a sword-scabbard; it is six inches in length and two inches in breadth, and weighs one ounce. At the time of opening it, the height was 6 feet and diameter between 30 and 40. And they did work all manner of work of exceedingly curious workmanship.28 And never could be a people more blessed than were they, and more prospered by the hand of the Lord. An exceptionally well-preserved early sword was discovered in 2017 in the Venetian Monastery of Lazarus, and subsequently verified to possibly be the oldest preserved sword in the world. Arrow heads of copper, some of them five or six inches in length, circular medals of copper, several inches in diameter, very thin, and much injured by time, have been found in the tumuli of Ohio. Metallurgical analysis of a sample taken from the blade proves that it was made of mild steel, and that the iron was deliberately hardened into steel, attesting to the technical knowledge of the blacksmith.” Shadiversity Published on Sep 19, 2017. With the introduction of copper, and subsequently bronze, knives could be made longer, leading to the sword. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. When comparing the color of the two metals, pure iron comes in a silver-white color, whereas bronze comes in a copper-yellow, or dark gray color. Quoted in Annotated Book of Mormon page 492 by David Hocking and Rod Meldrum Page 477. We will list many pictures and articles about iron and copper swords found in North America in this article. All of the Tools or Weapons in Tinkers' Construct can be made from a variety of Materials.For the full list of available materials in your version of the game, please check the ingame documentation. Here it is from the “most correct” book, even the Book of Mormon. It was undoubtedly made and used for an ornament, being perforated with loopholes for fastening, which must have been bored by some hard instrument. There have been many famous types of swords used by many cultures throughout history. There is another mound at the in tersection of Third and Main streets; whatever it contained was deposited a small distance below a stratum of loam which is common to the town. The first weapons that can unambiguously be classified as swords are those found in Minoan Crete, dated to about 1700 BC, which reach lengths of more than 100 cm. Before bronze, stone (flint, obsidian f.e.) Some other similar swords have been found in Turkey, and are described by Thomas Zimmermann.[4]. Chambers thinks, was unlike any coin he had ever seen. Two of these are yet entire 5 the third one is so much wasted that it dropped in pieces in removing it from the earth. Testing both a light weight Viking Long Sword and a Neil Burridge (http://www.bronze-age-swords.com/) Leaf Bladed Bronze Short Sword of the Ewart Park form. You can DIY your sword through our website. Copper swords were very soft and dulled quickly . Ryan sword is one of the top-class sword manufacturers in China with long history; our products include Chinese swords, Japanese swords and European style swords. Gold and silver ornaments have been found in many of the tumuli in Ohio. It was about three inches in length, and one fourth of an inch in thickness. Learn the melting points of aluminum, copper, zinc, and other metals with this handy chart. The technology for bronze swords reached its high point during the Warring States period and Qin Dynasty (221 BC – 207 BC). With the introduction of copper, and eventually bronze, daggers could be made longer, and evolved into swords.The evolution of the dagger into the sword is thus gradual, and in 2004 the first "swords" have been claimed for the Early Bronze Age (c. 33rd to 31st centuries), based on finds at Arslantepe, weapon… The Hiawatha Belt has been dated to the mid-18th century. Near the feet was found a piece of copper weighing three ounces [now in the Museum of the Antiquarian Society of Worcester]. Again, if Dr. Hildreth is not mistaken, oxidized iron, or steel, was also discovered in connection with the above remains ; from which also follows, as a necessity upon the previous assumption, the extraordinary conclusion that the mound-builders were acquainted with the use of iron the conclusion being, of course, subject to the improbable alternative already mentioned. The early Nordic swords are also comparatively short; a specimen discovered in 1912 near Bragby, Uppland, Sweden, dated to about 1800 to 1500 BC, was just over 60 cm long. The Copper Broadsword is arguably the weakest of the early game metal broadswords. The Process of Translating the Book of Mormon, World’s Oldest Carbon Steel artifacts in Turkey- 1800 BC, Iron Sword from the Time of Jeremiah Discovered near Jericho,” Ensign, June 1987, p57, https://archive.org/stream/naturalaborigina00hayw/naturalaborigina00hayw_djvu.txt, Ancient Hebrew Language/Culture in the United States, Why Scholars Edit Manuals, Wentworth Letter and “Saints” book, Carbon Samples from Zarahemla sent for Dating. The line of attachment is plainly discernible. Iron as a metal was much more commonplace than copper and tin, and iron swords were easier to make, allowing for mass producing to take place. At the hill Cumorah, the Nephites made their last stand prior to their utter extermination, A. D., 385.” – Life of Heber C. Kimball, by Orson F. Whitney, Salt Lake City, UT: Stevens & Wallis, Inc. [1888], 25. The American Indians who first acquired this wonderful new material began to trade it among their neighbors. The date of the gold coin was probably 1214, and the date of the brass piece 1009. a round piece of copper about the size of an American eagle. forehead or scull, which lay under the plate of copper, sword belts, or a buckler composed of copper. Remains of rude specimens of earthen ware, pieces of copper, and iron instruments of rude workmanship were ploughed up within the area.” PIONEER HISTORY OF THE HOLLAND PURCHASE OF WESTERN NEW YORK: O. Turner, 1849, Below is information from Rod Meldrum’s #1 Best Selling LDS book on Geography, “Exploring the Book of Mormon in America’s Heartland”. No signs of the sword itself were discovered, except the appearance of rust above mentioned. They were replaced by iron swords during the early part of the 1st millennium BC. “The hill Cumorah [the Jaredite hill Ramah] is a high hill for that country and had the appearance of a fortification or entrenchment around it. Iron Age America before Columbus Overview ‘Crushing’ Evidence of Antiquity. Email Wayne at: [email protected]. Page 341-349. “From the time Father Bosley* located near Avon [Livingston County, NY], he found and plowed up axes and irons, and had sufficient to make his mill irons, and had always abundance of iron on hand without purchasing. The bones were much decayed, and many of them crumbled to dust on exposure to the air.”. While a bloomery can produce a bubbling crucible of liquid bronze, an additional 400 degrees Celsius is needed to liquidise iron. About a thousand years ago of an inch in thickness as Mr and receive notifications of new by... A prominent central ridge running along its entire length system at Arslantepe and the stones yet black! 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Was evidently of cast iron, stronger than bronze, knives could be made longer leading...